About the Data
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement to regulate trade in particular species of wild animals and plants, as well as their respective parts and derivatives. Parties to the Convention meet every two years to discuss and approve the CITES international secretariat financial budget and to improve the general administration and enforcement of the Convention. The Convention regulates international trade in over 30,000 species of wild animals and plants, which are listed in three appendices. The appendix in which a species is listed determines the regulations governing export or import of the species. A "species" is defined as the living animal or plant as well as its readily recognizable parts and derivatives. "Trade" includes any international movement of a species. In contrast to NatureServe status ranks and IUCN categories, CITES status carries legal protection in the signatory countries (which include virtually all Western Hemisphere nations). However, the listing process for CITES has more political input than either of the two other systems. In addition, some entire groups (such as hawks and hummingbirds) are listed under CITES even though some species within these may be abundant and under little threat. The CITES statuses listed in InfoNatura were most recently updated in April, 2000, based on the outcome of the 11th Conference of the Parties in Kenya. A description of the three CITES Appendices follows. Note that Appendix III species only have protected status within the listing nation. InfoNatura notes the listing nation(s) for Appendix III species (as well as taxonomic comments) in the CITES Comments section of the report for each species.
CITES Status Definitions
Species are rare or endangered, and trade will not be permitted for primarily commercial purposes. Before trade for other purposes is commenced, the importer must be in possession of a Convention export permit issued by the government of the exporting nation and an import permit issued by the government of the importing nation.
Species are not rare or endangered at present but could become so if trade is not regulated. The species being traded must be covered by appropriate convention export permits issued by the government of the exporting nation before entry to another country will be permitted.
Species are not endangered but are managed by the listing nation. Permit requirements for Appendix III species are as for Appendix II species and only apply to the listing nation.