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Birds, Mammals, and Amphibians of Latin America.
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Glossary

A, B, C
,   D, E, F,   G,   H, I, K, J, L,   M, N, O,   P, Q, R, S,   T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z


A B C

AG: Abbreviation for Antigua.

AN: Abbreviation for the Netherlands Antilles.

AR: Abbreviation for Argentina.

Authority: The authority who published the original description for a particular scientific name and the year of the author's publication. Parenthesis indicate that the genus has changed since the original description.

BB: Abbreviation for Barbados.
BO: Abbreviation for Bolivia.
BR: Abbreviation for Brazil.
BS: Abbreviation for Bahamas.
BZ: Abbreviation for Belize.

CITES Protection Status: Value from the Protective Appendix according to the Convention on International Trade in Endangerment of Species (CITES). Values include: 1 = Appendix I (most critically endangered), 2 = Appendix II, 3 = Appendix III.

CL: Abbreviation for Chile.

CO: Abbreviation for Colombia.

Common Name: The English common name of a species adopted for use by NatureServe.

CR: Abbreviation for Costa Rica.

CR: IUCN Red List Categories, Crtitically Endangered: A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence (severe population decline, very small population, very small geographic area occupied, or if the calculated probability of extinction during the next 10 years of >50%) indicates that it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

CU: Abbreviation for Cuba.

DD: IUCN Red List Categories, Data Deficient: A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate.

DM: Abbreviation for Dominica.

DO: Abbreviation for Dominican Republic.

EC: Abbreviation for Ecuador.

EN: IUCN Red List Categories, Endangered: A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence (large population decline, small population, small geographic area occupied, or if the calculated probability of extinction during the next 20 years is >20%) indicates that it is considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

EW: IUCN Red List Categories, Extinct in the Wild: A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.

EX: IUCN Red List Categories, Extinct: A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times, throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form.

Exotic: Occurrence in a particular area (e.g., country) is due to deliberate or inadvertent human introduction. Populations may now be self-sustaining. Such species are also sometimes referred to as nonindigenous or nonnative.
Extirpated: The populations that historically occurred in a particular area (e.g., country) no longer exist in that area. Extirpation is sometimes referred to as local extinction.

FK: Abbreviation for the Falkland Islands.

G1: Global Conservation Status Rank, Critically Imperiled (G-rank) — At very high risk of extinction due to extreme rarity (often 5 or fewer populations), very steep declines, or other factors. For more information see Natureserve Conservation Status. .

G2: Global Heritage G2: Global Conservation Status Rank, Imperiled (G-rank) —At high risk of extinction due to very restricted range, very few populations (often 20 or fewer), steep declines, or other factors. For more information see Natureserve Conservation Status..

G3: Global Conservation Status Rank, Vulnerable (G-rank) — At moderate risk of extinction due to a restricted range, relatively few populations (often 80 or fewer), recent and widespread declines, or other factors. For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status.

G4: Global Conservation Status Rank, Apparently Secure (G-rank) — Uncommon but not rare; some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors. For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status

G5: Global Conservation Status Rank, Secure (G-rank) — Common; widespread and abundant. For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status

GNA: Not Applicable: A conservation status rank is not applicable because the species is not a suitable target for conservation activities. For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status

GNR: Unranked: Global rank not yet assessed. For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status

G#G#: Range Rank: A numeric range rank (e.g., G2G3) is used to indicate the range of uncertainty in the status of a species or community. Ranges cannot skip more than one rank (e.g., GU should be used rather than G1G4). For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status

GD: Abbreviation for Grenada.

General Status Comments: Comments related to either the IUCN or CITES Status.

Genus: Taxonomic Genus

GF: Abbreviation for French Guiana.

GH: Global Heritage Status Rank, Species Possibly Extinct — Missing; known from only historical occurrences but still some hope of rediscovery. For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status

GIS: Geographic Information System.

GP: Abbreviation for Guadeloupe.

Granivore: Taxa that eat seeds or hard fruits (e.g., acorns and various nuts), although not only indirectly (e.g., only as a component of a soft fruit).

GT: Abbreviation for Guatemala.

GU: Variant Global Rank, Unrankable: : Currently unrankable due to lack of information or due to substantially conflicting information about status or trends. Whenever possible, the most likely rank is assigned and the question mark qualifier is added (e.g., G2?) to express uncertainty, or a range rank (e.g., G2G3) is used to delineate the limits (range) of uncertainty. For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status

GX: Global Conservation Status Rank, Species Presumed Extinct — - Believed to be extinct throughout its range. Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered. For more information see NatureServe Conservation Status

GY: Abbreviation for Guyana.

Habitat: Comments on the habitat(s) in which the element characteristically occurs rangewide (during different stages of its life or annual cycle, if needed).

HN: Abbreviation for Honduras.

HT: Abbreviation for Haiti.

IUCN Red List Assessor(s): The scientists who provided input into the assessment for a particular species. These scientists do not necessarily endorse the final Red List Category assigned to the species.

IUCN Red List Criteria: Codes referring to the specific Red List Criteria that apply to the species and justify its inclusion in its assigned Red List Category. For an explanation of the codes, see http://www.redlist.org/info/categories_criteria2001.html

IUCN Red List Category: Code for the Endangerment status according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Values include: EX = extinct, EW = extinct in wild, CR = critically endangered, EN = endangered, VU = vulnerable, LR = lower risk, DD = data deficient, NE = not evaluated.

IUCN Red List Category Rationale: A short narrative explaining the population or range information used, inferences, assumptions, and other factors that influenced the decision to place the species in a particular Red List Category.

JM: Abbreviation for Jamaica.

Kingdom: Taxonomic Kingdom

KN: Abbreviation for St. Kitts.

KY: Abbreviation for the Cayman Islands.

LC: Abbreviation for St. Lucia.

LC: IUCN Red List Categories, Least Concern: A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.

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MS: Abbreviation for Montserrat.

MX: Abbreviation for Mexico.

Native and Extant: Known to currently occur in a particular area (e.g., country), although may only be of casual or accidental occurrence in the area. Occurrence in the area is not due to human-aided dispersal.

Natural Heritage Network: For more information see About Us: NatureServe and the Natural Heritage Network.

NatureServe Conservation Status: The conservation status ranking system developed by The Nature Conservancy and the Natural Heritage Network. Conservation status ranks are assigned, reviewed, and revised according to standard criteria. This is the cornerstone of Natural Heritage work, allowing Natural Heritage programs and their cooperators to target the most at-risk elements for inventory, protection, management, and research.

NE: IUCN Red List Categories, Not Evaluated: A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

NI: Abbreviation for Nicaragua.

NT: IUCN Red List Categories, Near Threatened: A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.

Order: Taxonomic Order

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PA: Abbreviation for Panama.

PE: Abbreviation for Peru.

Population Status: : Estimate of population size and/or abundance, population trend, recent records, and an indication whether scientists have actually looked recently for species.

PR: Abbreviation for Puerto Rico.

PY: Abbreviation for Paraguay.

Range Map Compilers: The individuals and/or organizations responsible for digitizing the range map and the year during which the work was completed.

Scientific Name: Species: The scientific name for an element adopted for use by NatureServe; generally based on standard botanical or major zoological taxonomic references. For more information please see "Data Sources."

SR: Abbreviation for Surinam.

SV: Abbreviation for El Salvador.

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Taxonomic Comments: Pertinent information regarding questions or controversies concerning the validity, taxonomic distinctness, or generic placement of the plant or animal species. May also provide information about the scientific name or its spelling. May include discussion of differing taxonomic or nomenclatural usage by other conservation agencies and organizations.

TC: Abbreviation for Turks & Caicos.

TT: Abbreviation for Trinidad/Tobago.

UY: Abbreviation for Uruguay.

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