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Podilymbus podiceps - Pied-billed Grebe
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Taxonomy/Classification
Scientific Name: Podilymbus podiceps
Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
English Common Name: Pied-billed Grebe
Spanish Common Name(s): Zambullidor Pico Grueso, Macá de Pico Grueso
Portuguese Common Name(s): Mergulhão-Caçador

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Class Order Family
Aves Podicipediformes Podicipedidae

Taxonomic Comments: May constitute a superspecies with P. GIGAS (AOU 1998).

Global Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern  
CITES Status: None

Habitat
BREEDING: In eastern U.S., occurs in ponds, sloughs, and marshes, in marshy inlets and along edges of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, and occasionally in estuarine wetlands (Palmer 1962, Chabreck 1963, Cramp et al. 1977, Andrle and Carroll 1988). Nests are typically built in shallow water surrounded by dense vegetation, especially cattail (TYPHA spp.) and bulrush (SCIRPUS spp.), and are farther from shore than from open water (Glover 1953, Stewart 1975, Faaborg 1976, Sealy 1978, Forbes et al. 1989). Wind and waves are major threats to floating nests and surrounding emergent vegetation acts as a wave break, anchors the nest, and conceals the nest from predators (Forbes et al. 1989). Because the direction of wind and waves shifts frequently during the nesting season, sheltered nesting sites can be limiting (Faaborg 1976). In Nova Scotia, avoided nesting on edges of stands of emergent vegetation that were exposed to wave action, and nest-site selection was related to structure but not type of vegetation available (Forbes et al. 1989). In comparison to randomly chosen marsh locations, nests were characterized by greater distance from shore, increased proximity to open water, and deeper water (Forbes et al. 1989).

Microhabitats at Manitoba wetlands included the densest and tallest stands of emergent vegetation available, particularly those in deeper portions of ponds (Nudds 1982). In Iowa, always associated with dense stands of emergent, littoral vegetation, and avoided wetlands with 100% open water (Faaborg 1976). On moist-soil impoundments in Missouri, habitat use was associated with water > 25 cm deep and vegetative cover characterized as "open, sparse, or short" (Fredrickson and Reid 1986). Grebe use was not associated with shallower waters or "dense" or "rank" emergent vegetative cover (Fredrickson and Reid 1986).

NON-BREEDING: Habitats in winter and migration similar to breeding areas (Cramp 1977), but many shift to more exposed areas on brackish, estuarine waters or sheltered inlets on large lakes, rivers, and salt water (Palmer 1962). Root (1988) noted that the densest overwintering populations occur on wide rivers and large lakes.
Population Status

Distribution Status in Latin America

Native Antigua and Barbuda, Netherlands Antilles, Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Bahamas, Belize, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Haiti, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Saint Lucia, Martinique, Montserrat, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Paraguay, Suriname, El Salvador, Turks and Caicos Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, British, Virgin Islands, U.S.

References

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  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 829 pp.

  • Andrle, R. F., and J. R. Carrol, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York. 551 pp.

  • Arnold, T. W. 1989. Variation in size and composition of horned and pied-billed grebe eggs. Condor 91:987-9.

  • Behrstock, R. A. 1981. Prey-induced mortality of a pied-billed grebe. Western Birds 12:183-4.

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  • BirdLife International. 2004. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

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  • Brown, M., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1986. Implications of marsh size and isolation for marsh bird management. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:392-397.

  • Buckalew, J. H. 1948. Pied-billed grebe escapes duck hawk. Wood Thrush 4:59.

  • Bull, J. 1974. Birds of New York state. Doubleday/Natural History Press, Garden City, New York. Reprint, 1985 (with Supplement, Federation of New York Bird Clubs, 1976), Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York.

  • Castro, I. and A. Phillips. 1996. A guide to the birds of the Galapagos Islands. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

  • Chabreck, R. H. 1963. Breeding habits of the pied-billed grebe in an impounded coastal marsh in Louisiana. Auk 80:447-52.

  • Clapp, R. B., et al. 1982. Marine birds of the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico. Part 1, Gaviiformes through Pelecaniformes. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., FWS/OBS 82/01. 637 pp.

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  • Davis, T. A., M. F. Platter-Reiger, and R. A. Ackerman. 1985. Incubation water loss by pied-billed grebe eggs: adaptations to a hot, wet nest. Physiological Zoology 57:384-91.

  • Delany, M. F. 1986. Bird bands recovered from American alligator stomachs in Florida. N. Amer. Bird Bander 11:92-4.

  • Faaborg, J. 1976. Habitat selection and territorial behavior of the small grebes of North Dakota. Wilson Bulletin 88:390-399.

  • Fisher, H. I. 1961. The hatching muscle in North American grebes. Condor 63:227-33.

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  • Forbes, M. R. L. 1987. Extrapair feeding in pied-billed grebes. Wilson Bulletin 99:109-111.

  • Forbes, M. R. L., H. P. Barkhouse, and P. C. Smith. 1989. Nest-site selection by pied-billed grebes PODILYMBUS PODICEPS. Ornis Scandinavia 20:211-8.

  • Forbes, M. R. L., and C. D. Ankney. 1987. Hatching asynchrony and food allocation within broods of pied-billed grebes, PODILYMBUS PODICEPS. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65:2872-7.

  • Forbes, M. R. L., and C. D. Ankney. 1988. Intraclutch variation in egg weights of pied-billed grebes. Condor 90:709-11.

  • Forbes, M. R. L., and C. D. Ankney. 1988. Nest attendance by adult pied-billed grebes, PODILYMBUS PODICEPS (L.). Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:2019-23.

  • Forbush, E. H. 1925. Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states. Part 1: Water birds, marsh birds and shore birds. Massachusetts Department of Agriculture, Boston, Massachusetts. 486 pp.

  • Fredrickson, L. H., and T. S. Taylor. 1982. Managment of seasonally flooded impoundments for wildlife. Fish and Wildlife Service Resource Publication 148. 29 pp.

  • Fredrickson, L.H., F.A. Reid. 1986. Wetlands and riparian habitats: a nongame management overview. Pages 59-96 in J.B. Hale, L.B. Best, and R. L. Clawson, (eds.) Management of nongame wildlife in the Midwest: a developing art. Proc. Symp. 47th Midwest Fish and Wildl. Conf.

  • Friend, M. 1987. Field Guide to Wildlife Diseases. Vol. 1: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Migratory Birds. Fish and Wildlife Service Resource Publication 167. 225 pp.

  • Fugle, G. N., and S. I. Rothstein. 1977. Clutch size determination, egg size and egg-shell thickness in the pied-billed grebe. Auk 94:371-3.

  • Garrido, O. H. and A. Kirkconnell. 2000. Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

  • Gibbs, J. P., J. R. Longcore, D. G. McAuley, and J. K. Ringelman. In press. Use of wetland habitats by selected nongame waterbirds in Maine. Fish and Wildlife Reservation 9, Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Gibbs, J. P., and S. M. Melvin. 1992. Pied-billed grebe, PODILYMBUS PODICEPS. Pages 31-49 in K. J. Schneider and D. M. Pence, editors. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the Northeast. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Massachusetts. 400 pp.

  • Gibbs, J.P., and S.M. Melvin. 1990. An assessment of wading birds and other wetlands avifauna and their habitats in Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fish. and Wildlife, Bangor, Maine. 61 pp. Unpublished report.

  • Glover, F. A. 1953. Nesting ecology of the pied-billed grebe in northwestern Iowa. Wilson Bulletin 65:32-9.

  • Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 279 pp.

  • Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • Jackson, J.A. 1985. A mutualistic feeding association between boat-tailed grackles and pied-billed grebes. Condor 87:147-148.

  • Johnsgard, P. A. 1987. Diving birds of North America. Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln. xii + 292 pp.

  • Kibbe, D. 1989. Survey of Vermont's rare marshland bird species. Unpubl. report, Hoboken, New Jersey. 8 pp.

  • Kilham, L. 1954. Repeated territorial attacks of pied-billed grebe on ring-necked duck. Wilson Bulletin 66:265-7.

  • Kirby, R. E. 1976. Mapping wetlands on beaver flowages with 35-mm photography. Canadian Field-Naturalist 90:423-431.

  • Leavitt, B.B. 1957. Water moccasin preys on pied-billed grebe. Wilson Bulletin 69:112-113.

  • Leck, C.F. 1971. Cooperative feeding in LEUCOPHOYX THULA and PODILYMBUS PODICEPS (Aves). American Midland Naturalist 86:241-242.

  • Manci, K. M., and D. H. Rusch. 1988. Indices to distribution and abundance of some inconspicuous waterbirds at Horicon Marsh. Journal of Field Ornithology 59:67-75.

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  • Nudds, T. D. 1982. Ecological separation of grebes and coots: interference competition or microhabitat selection? Wilson Bulletin 94:505-514.

  • Orians, G. H. 1980. Some adaptations of marsh-nesting blackbirds. Princeton Univ. Press. 295 pp.

  • Otto, J. E. 1983. Breeding ecology of the pied-billed grebe (PODILYMBUS PODICEPS [Linneaus]) on Rush Lake, Winnebago County, Wisconsin. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

  • Otto, J. E., and D. L. Strohmeyer. 1985. Wing molt by a nesting pied-billed grebe. Wilson Bulletin 97:239-40.

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  • Palmer, R. S. 1949. Maine Birds. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Vol. 102. 656 pp.

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  • Ridgely, R. S. 2002. Distribution maps of South American birds. Unpublished.

  • Ridgely, R. S. and J. A. Gwynne, Jr. 1989. A Guide to the Birds of Panama. 2nd edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.

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  • Schneider, K.J., and D.M. Pence, editors. 1992. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the Northeast. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, MA. 400 pp.

  • Sealy, S. G. 1978. Clutch size and nest placement of the pied-billed grebe in Manitoba. Wilson Bulletin 90:301-2.

  • Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.

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  • Zook, J. L. 2002. Distribution maps of the birds of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Unpublished.


Summary Text | Overview Map | West Caribbean Map  | East Caribbean Map | Range Map


Overview Map
Note: indicates countries of occurrence, actual area occupied by the species is usually much less. Footnote - please click for information on permanent, temporary breeding, or non-breeding distribution of birds.

Summary Text |  Overview Map | West Caribbean Map  | East Caribbean Map | Range Map

West Caribbean Map
Note: indicates countries of occurrence, actual area occupied by the species is usually much less. Footnote - please click for information on permanent, temporary breeding, or non-breeding distribution of birds.

Summary Text |  Overview Map | West Caribbean Map  | East Caribbean Map | Range Map

East Caribbean Map
Note: indicates countries of occurrence, actual area occupied by the species is usually much less. Footnote - please click for information on permanent, temporary breeding, or non-breeding distribution of birds.

Footnote - please click for information on permanent, temporary breeding, or non-breeding distribution of birds.
NOTE: Maps for birds indicate countries where a species occurs either as a resident (permanent or temporary breeding or nonbreeding) or as a passage migrant. Not all records of vagrant or accidental occurrences in a country are included in the database.

Summary Text |  Overview Map |  West Caribbean Map  |  East Caribbean Map |  Range Map

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. A shapefile of this map is available for download at www.natureserve.org/getData/animalData.jsp.


Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; NatureServe, 2004

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