Name: Podilymbus podiceps
Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
English Common Name: Pied-billed Grebe
Spanish Common Name(s): Zambullidor Pico Grueso, Macá de Pico Grueso
Portuguese Common Name(s): Mergulhão-Caçador
Taxonomic Comments: May constitute a superspecies with P. GIGAS (AOU 1998).
Global Conservation Status
IUCN Red List Category:
LC - Least concern
CITES Status: None
BREEDING: In eastern U.S., occurs in ponds, sloughs, and marshes, in marshy inlets and along edges of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, and occasionally in estuarine wetlands (Palmer 1962, Chabreck 1963, Cramp et al. 1977, Andrle and Carroll 1988). Nests are typically built in shallow water surrounded by dense vegetation, especially cattail (TYPHA spp.) and bulrush (SCIRPUS spp.), and are farther from shore than from open water (Glover 1953, Stewart 1975, Faaborg 1976, Sealy 1978, Forbes et al. 1989). Wind and waves are major threats to floating nests and surrounding emergent vegetation acts as a wave break, anchors the nest, and conceals the nest from predators (Forbes et al. 1989). Because the direction of wind and waves shifts frequently during the nesting season, sheltered nesting sites can be limiting (Faaborg 1976). In Nova Scotia, avoided nesting on edges of stands of emergent vegetation that were exposed to wave action, and nest-site selection was related to structure but not type of vegetation available (Forbes et al. 1989). In comparison to randomly chosen marsh locations, nests were characterized by greater distance from shore, increased proximity to open water, and deeper water (Forbes et al. 1989).
Microhabitats at Manitoba wetlands included the densest and tallest stands of emergent vegetation available, particularly those in deeper portions of ponds (Nudds 1982). In Iowa, always associated with dense stands of emergent, littoral vegetation, and avoided wetlands with 100% open water (Faaborg 1976). On moist-soil impoundments in Missouri, habitat use was associated with water > 25 cm deep and vegetative cover characterized as "open, sparse, or short" (Fredrickson and Reid 1986). Grebe use was not associated with shallower waters or "dense" or "rank" emergent vegetative cover (Fredrickson and Reid 1986).
NON-BREEDING: Habitats in winter and migration similar to breeding areas (Cramp 1977), but many shift to more exposed areas on brackish, estuarine waters or sheltered inlets on large lakes, rivers, and salt water (Palmer 1962). Root (1988) noted that the densest overwintering populations occur on wide rivers and large lakes.
Distribution Status in Latin America
||Antigua and Barbuda, Netherlands Antilles, Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Bahamas, Belize, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Haiti, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Saint Lucia, Martinique, Montserrat, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Paraguay, Suriname, El Salvador, Turks and Caicos Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, British, Virgin Islands, U.S.
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